Home

What pressures did the american family experience during the depression?

What pressures did the American family experience during the depression? During the depression, many families did not have enough food or money. Most lost their homes, or were living in very poor.. The average American family didn't have much extra income to spend on leisure activities during the 1930s. Before the Depression, going to the movie theater was a major pastime. Fewer Americans.. What pressures did the American family experience during the Depression? The economic difficulties of the Great Depression put severe pressure on the family life. Making ends meet was a daily struggle, and som families broke apart under the strain response to the Depression? 4. Why did minorities often experience an increase in discrimi-nation during the Great Depression? 5. What pressures did the American family experience during the Depression? Hoover Struggles with the Depression (pages 684-689) 6. How did Hoover's treatment of the Bonus Army affect his standing with the public? 7 Why did minorities often experience an increase in discrimination during the Great Depression? What pressures did the American family experience during the Depression? Hoover Struggles with the Depression (pages 684-689) How did Hoover's treatment of the Bonus Army affect his standing with the public? In what ways did Hoover try to use the.

What pressure did the American family experience during

The economic difficulties of the Great Depression put severe pressure on the family life. Making ends meet was a daily struggle, and som families broke apart under the strain. Men: weren't accustomed to unemployment; stopped trying to find jobs after years and abandoned familie What pressures did the American family experience during the Great Depression? Many men left their families, because they couldn't supply for them

The Great Depression was the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world, lasting from 1929 to 1939. It began after the stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall.

Life for the Average Family During the Great Depression

  1. What pressures did the American family experience during the Great Depression? What pressures did the American family experience during the Depression? many men left their families because they were ashamed they couldn't supply for them. Women worked hard to help and canned food and sewed clothes
  2. There are no firm answers as to why Americans lived longer during the worst years of the depression, but scholars have made some suggestions. Take traffic deaths: Car use increased during the.
  3. Life during the Great Depression - The Heart of the Matter Most characteristic of life during the Great Depression was the widening gap between the haves and have-nots. Unemployment rose from a shocking 5 million in 1930 to an almost unbelievable 13 million by the end of 1932. It would be rural America that would suffer the greatest

Secretary of the Interior Ray Lyman Wilbur, a medical doctor, argued in 1932 that the economic Depression could actually be good for children. Families with less money to spend, Wilbur concluded, would be forced to depend upon each other and live a more wholesome home life Yet during the Depression Eleanor Roosevelt inspired less-famous Americans with her earnest example, as when she served Franklin Roosevelt seven-cent meals in the White House. American women found the task of homemaking increasingly challenging in the face of the sharp cuts in the family budget due to the nation's economic crisis During the Great Depression, millions of Americans lost their jobs in the wake of the 1929 Stock Market Crash. But for one group of people, employment rates actually went up: women. From 1930 to. And before the Depression, there was very little difference between the wage being asked for by job seekers and the wage being paid. Industry began to cut wages in the Fall of 1931, after. The Great Depression began with the Wall Street Crash in October 1929. The stock market crash marked the beginning of a decade of high unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation, plunging farm incomes, and lost opportunities for economic growth as well as for personal advancement

Like other second generation children, the children of Japanese immigrants during the first half of the 20th century struggled to understand their place in American society. However, unlike other groups, the second generation Japanese, or Nisei, experience was unique because of anti-Asian sentiment in California and international politics Patti Kate Young children were put to work during the Great Depression. The primary effects for children of the American Great Depression of the 1920s and 1930s were hard labor, malnutrition and hunger, and displacement. Many young people also developed emotional and psychological problems as a result of living in constant uncertainty and of seeing their families in hardship

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.The timing of the Great Depression varied across the world; in most countries, it started in 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. The Great Depression is commonly used as an. African American life during the Great Depression and the New Deal. The Great Depression of the 1930s worsened the already bleak economic situation of African Americans. They were the first to be laid off from their jobs, and they suffered from an unemployment rate two to three times that of whites. In early public assistance programs African Americans often received substantially less aid.

Oliver History Chapter 22 & 23 Short Answers Flashcards

What pressures did the American family experience during the Depression? The economic hardships faced during the Great Depression put severe pressure on family life as making ends meet was a daily struggle and in some cases, families broke apart under the strai What came out of the combined experience of the Great Depression and World War II — broad measures of quality-of-life equalization like a sharply progressive tax policy with rates on the wealthy. Numerous African American families have struggled for generations with persistent poverty, especially in the inner city. These conditions were further strained during the 1980s and 1990s by the widespread use of crack cocaine. For many, crack use became an obsession, dominated their lives, and superseded family responsibilities

Great Depression. Texans were optimistic about the future in January 1929. Over the past decade the state population had increased to 5,824,715, representing a gain of more than one million people, or almost 25 percent. Although geared to one crop—Cotton is King—the economy was somewhat diversified. In East Texas the Piney Woods accounted. The Great Depression changed the lives of people who lived and farmed on the Great Plains and in turn, changed America. The government programs that helped them to live through the 1930s changed the future of agriculture forever. Weather touched every part of life in the Dirty 30s: dust, insects, summer heat and winter cold Chapter 6. Roaring Twenties to the Great Depression, 1920-1932. The 1920s were a period of economic growth and transition. Real wages for most workers increased, while stock prices advanced as much during the 1920s as they had in the previous three decades. The US census of 1920 revealed that, for the first time, a majority of Americans lived. The government did not give more partly because it had very little money to spare during the Depression; by 1933 it was already spending more than $1 million on relief payments annually. Government officials were also afraid that if they gave too much, people would become comfortable on the dole and stop trying to find work elsewhere

Financial reasons cited more often than in June. In November, a third of U.S. adults who moved due to the pandemic cited financial problems as the most important reason they relocated (17% said job loss and 15% said financial problems other than job loss). That compares with 18% who cited job loss or other financial reasons in June The current moment is not the first time the idea of America as the city on a hill has started to wobble. But Trump's nation has yet to reach the levels of introspection and uncertainty that followed the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Dust Bowl agricultural crisis shortly afterwards. The 1930s signalled a wholesale reassessment of the American dream (a phrase firs This is the author's tribute to his father, Elliott Maraniss, whose life and times were epic, from the Depression-era college society of leftist students (some of his companions went on to serve in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in the Spanish civil war), to the U.S. Army in WWII -- where he commanded an all-African American company) and on to a postwar career in newspapers, a career blighted by. During WW1 the federal government had subsidized farms and encouraged modernization to increase production. When the war was over, the government abruptly cut aid to farmers. Prices paid for crops dropped sharply and farmers fell into debt. In 1929 the average annual income for an American family was $750, but for farm families if was only $273

The Richland Beacon-News compared the efforts of the American Legion to the similar acts of heroism performed by many of the same boys who had fought in the battles of the Argonne Forest and Belleau Woods during World War I, that same spirit which saved men, women, and children and property from the wreck and ruin of the present disastrous. Why did minorities often experience an increase in discrimination during the Depression? 5. What pressures did the American family experience during the Depression? President Hoover Struggles with the Depression. 6. How did Hoover's treatment of the Bonus Army affect his standing with the public? 7. In what ways did Hoover try to use the. About one-third of U.S. college students had difficulty functioning in the last 12 months due to depression, and almost half said they felt overwhelming anxiety in the last year, according to the 2013 National College Health Assessment, which examined data from 125,000 students from more than 150 colleges and universities

The Great Depression was one of the major economic events in world history. It affected every sphere of life. The outcomes were such that they changed the face of world economy. This article deals in detail with the economic, political, social and cultural effects of this crisis and the process of restoration The Depression of 1893 can be seen as a watershed event in American history. It was accompanied by violent strikes, the climax of the Populist and free silver political crusades, the creation of a new political balance, the continuing transformation of the country's economy, major changes in national policy, and far-reaching social and. Social Effects of the Great Depression for kids: The Presidents during the Great Depression The economic decline was triggered by the Wall Street Crash on October 29, 1929. Republican Herbert Hoover served in office from March 4, 1929 to March 4, 1933 and was blamed for the economic bust and its disastrous social effects on the American population.. The Great Depression inspired a number of significant works of fiction as well, both during the era and long afterward. Samuel Tupper Jr., who worked as an editor and writer for the WPA guide, wrote the well-received novel Old Lady's Shoes (1934), which provides an insider's view of life in Atlanta during the depression The Depression forced many rural Southwestern residents into the cities in search of work and support. Los Angeles, in particular, was attractive to Mexicans because of the barrios (neighborhoods), which had been established by earlier generations of immigrants. By 1930 Los Angeles' Mexican population was second only to Mexico City's. 44

I am the child of a generation that came to New York during the mid-century Great Migration of Puerto Ricans. Our family lived through the turmoil of the Civil Rights Era and white flight in the. Depression affects an estimated one in 15 adults (6.7%) in any given year. And one in six people (16.6%) will experience depression at some time in their life. Depression can occur at any time, but on average, first appears during the late teens to mid-20s. Women are more likely than men to experience depression It was the best of times, it was the very worst of times. America's Great Depression of the 1930s was a time of starvation and subsistence survival for many families. Decades later, many survivors of those years hold on to the survival lessons they learned, from hoarding pieces of aluminum foil to eating lettuce leaves with a sprinkle of sugar gage foreclosures during the Great Depression, the U.S. government has sought to enable citizens to become homeowners by underwriting mortgages. In the years following World War II, how-ever, the federal government contributed to the early decay of inner-city neighbor-hoods by withholding mortgage capital and making it difficult for these areas t Farming was one of the hardest hit segments of the New Mexico economy during the Great Depression. In 1931, the state's most important crops were only worth about half of their 1929 value. Dry farmers were especially devastated as they suffered from both continually high operating costs and a prolonged drought that dried up portions of New.

A crisis is a period of heightened family tension and imbalance that requires quick staff identification. Head Start staff who work with families will find this information useful in understanding what brings about crises for families. Just as a crisis is an opportunity for a family, it is also an opportunity for staff to make a real difference in the life of a Head Start family The Great Depression . The Great Depression is the name given to the prolonged economic decline and stagnation precipitated by the stock market crash of 1929. Following the election of President. Assuming you mean the Great Depression as being the period between 1929 and 1939, Scotland was on the periphery of the crisis. The industrial region of Glasgow took the brunt of the crisis with the transformation of Victorian tenements into slums.. Unemployed people queue in Berlin during the Depression. The Great Depression was a long and extensive economic crisis, affecting most developed nations in the early and mid-1930s. The Great Depression was particularly severe in Germany, which had enjoyed five years of artificial prosperity, propped up by American loans and goodwill Although several studies have assessed mental health issues during epidemics, most have focused on health workers, patients, children, and the general population [6,7]. For example, a recent poll by The Kaiser Family Foundation showed that 47% of those sheltering in place reported negative mental health effects resulting from worry or stress.

the century, rates above 8 percent were recorded during recessions, such as those in 1915, 1921, 1975, and 1982. The highest rates of unemployment came during the Great Depression, when there were rates above 20 percent for several years. In 1933, there were more than 12 million workers unemployed; and the unemployment rate averaged 24.9 percent A complex set of interacting forces both economic and ecological brought the migrant workers documented in this ethnographic collection to California. Following World War I, a recession led to a drop in the market price of farm crops and caused Great Plains farmers to increase their productivity through mechanization and the cultivation of more land Federal Records and African American History (Summer 1997, Vol. 29, No. 2) By James Gilbert Cassedy The records of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) have been, and will remain, indispensable to the study of African American labor history. Thirty NARA record groups (approximately 19,711 cubic feet of documentary material) document the activities of federa

The Great Depression American Experience Official Site

The Great Depression Facts, Effects and Events. During the Great Depression, the country was hit with an extremely large unemployment rate. By 1933, the unemployment rate had climbed from 3% to 25%. By 1932, over 13 million Americans had lost their jobs. Between 1929 and 1932, incomes, on average, were reduced by 40% Individuals who identify as transgender tend to experience higher rates of mental health issues than the general population. While approximately 6.7 percent of the general U.S. population suffers. Great depression was a global economic crisis that faced many nations before the eruption of World War 2. It is regarded one of worst, widespread, and severe economic crisis in the American history, and during the 20th century Herbert Hoover was the 31st president of the United States, whose term was notably marked by the stock market crash of 1929 and the beginnings of the Great Depression Italians had begun to make advances out of the unskilled ranks during the prosperous 1920s, but many gains were overshadowed during the Great Depression. Partially in response to these conditions, Italians—both men and women—moved heavily into organized labor during the 1930s, finding the CIO industrial unions especially attractive

Footnote 2 By the time the Depression hit, the structure of family allowances conditioned the government to approach the unemployment crisis by expanding this benefit. At a time when labor surplus actually dominated the French economy, when emigrants were expelled in mass, and when French workers stood in soup lines, French politicians remained. Historical Context: Mexican Americans and the Great Depression | In February 1930 in San Antonio, Texas, 5000 Mexicans and Mexican Americans gathered at the city's railroad station to depart the United States for settlement in Mexico. In August, a special train carried another 2000 to central Mexico. | In February 1930 in San Antonio, Texas, 5000 Mexicans and Mexican Americans gathered at.

American industry provided almost two-thirds of all the Allied military equipment produced during the war, 297,000 aircraft, 193,000 artillery pieces, 86,000 tanks, two million army trucks. In four years, American industrial production, already the world's largest, doubled in size. The output of the machine-tools to make weapons trebled i Prices zigged and zagged rather than following a consistent upward course. In 1941, a middle-age American reflecting on price change over his or her lifetime would recall the sharp price increases of the World War I era, deflationary periods in the early twenties and during the depression, and the relative price stability of most of the 1920s The Great Depression was a global economic slump that erupted in late 1929 and lasted for several years. It began as an American crisis, specifically a huge stock market crash, but had knock-on effects around the world. The Great Depression was severely felt in Germany, where it caused widespread unemployment, starvation and misery In the past, following a crisis like a war or depression, Washington gradually paid down its debt. President Andrew Jackson actually wiped it out. But around 1975, the national debt began to rise even though there wasn't a war, depression, or other emergency. It rose because powerful lobbyists generated irresistible pressures to spend more money The American economy reached the depths of depression during 1932 and 1933, and yet it had begun to turn upward by mid-1932. It is not far-fetched to believe that the considerable deflation of July 1931-July 1932, totaling $7.5 billion of currency and deposits, or 14 percent, was partly responsible for the mid-summer upturn

1930s America & The Great Depression. The 1930s was a dark time in American history. Jobs and family life were harshly challenged by a long-lasting economic decline that left the country in a. The years 1931 and 1932 were very hard for the American automobile industry. There were not so many car sales as during the 1920s, because of the depression, but the face lift, styling and design of a car was a very important invention to attract new buyers. The gloomy (chromed) and streamline styled cars were very typical for the end of the 1930s Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a rare condition in which two or more distinct identities, or personality states, are present in—and alternately take control of—an individual. Some.

the great depression test Flashcards Quizle

China is on the road to its own Great Depression. The causes of our Great Depression are still hotly debated, but the best explanation comes from Friedrich Hayek, aided by the work of Milton. Asian American and Hispanic/Latino respondents, meanwhile, were 3.4 and 2.8 times, respectively, more likely than white respondents to say the same. These findings were consistent across income groups and are also consistent with previous surveys focused on the workplace experi­ence for Black and Asian American employees Franklin Delano Roosevelt (/ ˈ r oʊ z ə v əl t /, /-v ɛ l t / ROH-zə-velt; January 30, 1882 - April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events. By 1940, 1.5 million married couples were living apart. Now this changed after the harsh effects of the great depression, but war did nothing to help to bring a household together. During the war, families were stricken with a severe shortage of housing,schooling and child-care facilities. also an extended leave from family members

However, as a singular event, the stock market crash itself did not cause the Great Depression that followed. In fact, only approximately 10 percent of American households held stock investments and speculated in the market; yet nearly a third would lose their lifelong savings and jobs in the ensuing depression The American family today. Family life is changing. Two-parent households are on the decline in the United States as divorce, remarriage and cohabitation are on the rise. And families are smaller now, both due to the growth of single-parent households and the drop in fertility. Not only are Americans having fewer children, but the circumstances.

How did the bonus army show frustration of the American

  1. Depression is a topic that has far-reaching effects, and obviously I was not able to cover each and every consequences of the disorder. Haimowitz brought up the notion of shared and nonshared environment and the impact of genetics on depression. This was a field that I did not cover in my paper, and thus I am not an expert on the matter
  2. Thus, although the Depression led to the creation of the Social Security program, it did not, in general, shape its features. In Chart 1, a timeline of key milestones in the history of the Social Security program is presented with an overview of selected program changes and demographic events, from the start of the program in 1935 up through 2003
  3. The WPA and Americans' Life Histories Private efforts to preserve the life histories of former slaves accounted for only a small portion of the narratives collected during the late 1920s and 1930s. The advent of the New Deal marked a new phase, for it was under New Deal employment programs for jobless white-collar workers that narrative collecting reached its zenith, first in 1934 in a Federal.
  4. Childhood depression is a serious public health problem (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999).Population studies show that at any one time, between 10% and 15% of the child and adolescent population have some symptoms of depression and by the age of 18, 20% to 25% of adolescents will have experienced a depressive episode (Lewinsohn et al., 1993; Smucker et al., 1986)
  5. g the first Jew to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court, did much to make it fashionable, linking Zionism to the American ideal of democracy, of social justice and of liberty, and arguing that to be good Americans we must be better Jews.
  6. g more and more depressed and committing suicide at a greater rate than ever before is due to their failing.
  7. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. One Hundred Years of Price Change: The Consumer Price Index and the American Inflation Experience: 1929-1941 by the Numbers. Accessed March 19, 2021. History.com. The Great Depression Lesson About Trade Wars. Accessed March 19, 2021. Harvard Business Review. The U.S. Is Not Headed Toward a New Great.

Ch. 14 History Final Flashcards Quizle

Women began to rally and gather in pressure the government to recognize women's rights. During the time that the movie takes place, the early 1980s, American women are increasingly active in the suffragist movement. Many women feel that until they get the right to vote, men running the government will maintain superiority over women Except for the Civil War, the Great Depression was the most traumatic experience in the history of the United States. In an American culture that normally lives in the windowless room of the current event, the economic devastation of the 1930s and the New Deal which tried to repair it remain to this day deeply imprinted on the national psyche Dance Marathons (also called Walkathons), an American phenomenon of the 1920s and 1930s, were human endurance contests in which couples danced almost non-stop for hundreds of hours (as long as a month or two), competing for prize money. Dance marathons originated as part of an early-1920s, giddy, jazz-age fad for human endurance competitions. Other studies showed that though close to 50 percent in some mixed urban and rural areas expressed faith in curanderos, over 90 percent of the same sample proclaimed confidence in medical doctors ( Family and Mental Health in the Mexican American Community, edited by Susan E. Keefe and J. Manuel Casas, pp. 10-11) Key Takeaways. Franklin D. Roosevelt came into office in 1933 when the nation was reeling from the Great Depression. FDR embraced Keynesian economic policies and fought to expand the role of the federal government in the nation's economy. FDR implemented a series of projects and programs called the New Deal to stabilize the economy

Cayman Eco - Beyond Cayman Blackouts In Texas And

US History Test Review (Great Depression and New Deal

Abstract. This paper provides a survey of the Great Depression comprising both a narrative account and a detailed review of the empirical evidence, focusing especially on the experience of the United States. We examine the reasons for and flawed resolution of the American banking crisis, as well as the conduct of fiscal and monetary policy The Rise and Fall of American Growth, by Robert J. Gordon, is like a murder mystery in which the murderer is never caught.Indeed there is no investigation, and perhaps no detective. The thesis of Gordon's book is that high rates of economic growth in America were a one-time event between roughly 1870-1970, which he calls the special century

Great Depression: Black Thursday, Facts & Effects - HISTOR

  1. The Communist Party failed to instigate a proletarian revolution during the Great Depression, but it did move a bit further into the mainstream of American life. The American Führer The 20,000 people who turned out for the German-American Bund's Pro-American Rally in February 1939 heard self-styled American führer Fritz Kuhn denounce.
  2. An African-American family leaves Florida for the North during the Great Depression. it is one of the few ways in which pressure can be put on. The family migrated to Los Angeles when.
  3. After the fall of Saigon and the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, many Vietnamese people fled their war-torn country for the United States in search for a better life. Thousands of Vietnamese adults, children, and families crammed onto boats and traveled to the United States leaving their belongings, loved ones, and former lives behind. These people lost everything except for their memories of.
  4. Overall, mental health conditions occur in Black and African American (B/AA) people in America at about the same or less frequency than in White Americans. However, the historical Black and African American experience in America has and continues to be characterized by trauma and violence more often than for their White counterparts and impacts emotional and mental health of both youth and adults

What is a breadline Great Depression? - Colors-NewYork

  1. The Weimar Republic was devastated by the Wall Street Crash of October 1929 and the Great Depression that followed. The Crash had a devastating impact on the American economy but because America had propped up the Weimar Republic with huge loans in 1924 (the Dawes Plan) and in 1929 (the Young Plan), what happened to the American economy had to impact the Weimar Republic's economy
  2. istration. The Philippines encompasses about 7,100 islands and sits nearly 8,600 miles away from Washington, DC.
  3. Long-term unemployment plagued the American economy of the Great Depression. The stigma of a long unemployment spell made reentering employment difficult even during the brisk economic recovery, which lead to unemployment hysteresis and persistently high joblessness. Unemployment figures disaggregated by duration confirm the importance of hysteresis for the Great Depression, as the long-term.
  4. Here are seven of the reasons we are worried about the American middle class. 1. Middle-class incomes are stagnant. Despite gains in national income over the past half-century, American households.

The decade following World War II is fondly remembered as a period of economic growth and cultural stability. America had won the war and defeated the forces of evil in the world. The hardships of the previous fifteen years of war and depression were replaced by rising living standards, increased opportunities, and a newly emerging American culture confident of its future and place in the world Several depression studies provide extensive evidence of the destructive impact of unemployment on family relations. See Cooley; Komarovsky; and Stouffer and Lazarsfeld. 4. Bakke provides vivid accounts of the demoralization and shame experienced by both unemployed American and English workers during this period By 1839, however, agricultural prices had fallen and agriculturists felt the pressure. Recovery. In 1842, the American economy was able to rebound somewhat and overcome the five-year depression, due in part to the Tariff of 1842. However, according to most accounts, the economy did not fully rebound until 1843 During the 1930s, women proved capable of supporting themselves and their families. The suffragette movement, along with the 19th Amendment, gave women the right to vote. That paved the way for women to assert their independence. By choice or necessity, women of that decade held many roles

In the antebellum era—that is, in the years before the Civil War—American planters in the South continued to grow Chesapeake tobacco and Carolina rice as they had in the colonial era. Cotton, however, emerged as the antebellum South's major commercial crop, eclipsing tobacco, rice, and sugar in economic importance. By 1860, the region was producing two-thirds of the world's cotton COVID-19 and the American Jewish Economic Crisis. March 30, 2020. Share. By Steven Windmueller, Ph.D. American Jewry is facing a financial and structural crisis. The economic impact of the coronavirus pandemic will be devastating to the American Jewish communal system and of immediate concern to a significant number of Jewish families and seniors William Dodd served for four years as the ambassador to Germany before resigning — after repeated clashes with both Nazi Party officials and the State Department. Erik Larson chronicles Dodd's.

FDR did amazing work on the Great Depression, but he was throwing noodles at the wall. Biden would bring a unique experience to the office, having been the implementer in chief last time Obesity and depression often go hand in hand. But does being obese make people depressed, or can depression cause weight gain? In a society enamored with thinness, many assume that being fat is depressing — that if there is a cause and effect relationship, it's obesity that makes people feel down. But there is an alternative explanation, said Belinda L. Needham, an assistant. Woloch, Women and the American Experience, 289. [12] Lara Vapnek, Breadwinners: Working Women and Economic Independence, 1865-1920 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009), 75. [13] Cheryl D. Hicks, Talk With You Like a Woman: African American Women, Justice, and Reform in New York, 1890-1925 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina. In 2016, the median wealth for black and Hispanic families was $17,600 and $20,700, respectively, compared with 7 white families' median wealth of $171,000. The disparity between white and AAPI.