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Cephalometric planes

Cephalometric tracing and landmarks News Dentagam

Cephalometric planes and lines Bruxista

  1. Cephalometric planes Are derived from at least 2 or 3 landmarks and are used for measurements, separation of anatomic divisions, definition of anatomic structures of relating parts of the face to one another. The various cephalometric planes used are: 50
  2. g a ceph analysis requires you to.
  3. The proper way to measure a Frankfort horizontal plane is with a cephalometric x-ray. It is an x-ray that a dentist often uses to see a complete radiographic image of your profile, which includes the Frankfort horizontal plane. These x-rays are extraoral, so a dentist does not need to insert film or plates into the mouth
  4. Cephalometric Planes and Relationships Planes and relationships are then established using the above points and it is with these that cephalometric analysis can be undertaken. Knowing what these planes and relationships are is key, as well as how they influence diagnosis and treatment planning
  5. Ellis, E., & McNamara, J. (1988). Cephalometric reference planes--sella nasion vs Frankfort horizontal. The International journal of adult orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, 3(2), 81-87

Practical Cephalometry - Learn Orth

  1. Various cephalometric analyses use Sella-nasion (S-N) or Frankfort horizontal (F-H) planes as reference lines. [ 1 - 4] A commonly used S-N plane as a craniofacial reference line has been shown to have large interindividual standard deviations (SDs) when related to true vertical. [ 5 - 7] Furthermore, measurements based on another reference plane, F-H plane, do not always match with the clinical findings
  2. The ultimate diagnostic value of the cephalometric analysis is dependent on the initial accurate identification and localization of anatomic and anthropologic points (Fig. 21-8). These landmarks are used to construct the lines, angles, and planes used to make a two-dimensional assessment of the patient's craniofacial and dental relationships
  3. Introduction: This study was performed to investigate the cephalometric configuration of the occlusal plane in patients with anterior open bite. Methods: Of 61 subjects with open bite (overbite ≥3.75 mm) who had been recruited consecutively from January 2006 to November 2013 and had no history of orthodontic treatment, 14 cephalometric landmarks indicating the incisal edge or the buccal or.
  4. The 3D cephalometric planes constructed as perpendiculars to the Frankfort horizontal plane resembled the morphometric plane the most in both the symmetric and asymmetric groups with mean differences of less than 1.00 mm for most variables. However, the standard deviations were often large and clinically significant for these variables
  5. Cephalometry provides a 2D, static image in the sagittal plane and therefore cannot provide information about transverse dimensions, cross-sectional shape or volume, or dynamic changes to the airway during sleep. From: Encyclopedia of Sleep, 201
  6. Ideally, a cephalometric plane should have good reliability, good individual reproducibility, and be as close to true horizontal plane and true vertical plane as possible. Many studies over time have discussed the reproducibility of the natural head position in patients

Cephalometric analysis - Wikipedi

Cephalometrics - SlideShar

  1. gs, due to which it becomes imperative to check the reliability of these planes with respect to true horizontal plane,which is the main aim of this study. Materials and methods: Cephalometric radiographs of 90 subjects were selected and subjected to cephalometric analysis.Descriptive statistics including means and.
  2. The average of the nine locations of each landmark was used in subsequent calculations by the customized cephalometric software CIS (developed by the Department of Computer Science and technology of Peking University). The cephalometric landmarks and reference planes are shown and explained in Fig. 1 and Table 1 (the end of the document text file)
  3. The cephalometric landmarks play a major role in calculating the cephalometric planes, which are the lines between two landmarks in 2D cephalometric radiographs as shown in Table 2. Furthermore, different measurements are calculated using different cephalometric landmarks and planes, and they are used to analyze different anatomical structures.
  4. identified on both sides of the skull; the cephalometric lines, with the exception of the facial axis, are represented by 3D lines; the cephalometric planes, with the exception of the facial plane, are represented by planes; the effective mandibular length, the effective midfacial length, and the lower anterior facial height are measured as 3D point-to-point distances; the nasion perpendicular.
  5. ed based on the inclination of the atlas toward the Frankfort plane, the.

and now is a common method of head orientation for cephalometric radiography. Aims of Practical a)To enable the identification of cephalometric points and planes used in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. b)To trace 2 lateral skull radiographs (before and after treatment) of orthodontic treatment usin The prosthetic occlusal plane, radiographically visible through the radiopaque markers, was indicated on the tracing; and its angle relative to the cephalometric Frankfort plane was measured to the nearest 0.25 of a degree.The radiographic occlusal plane angle thus obtained was compared with the computed occlusal angle used earlier to program. Start studying Cephalometric points and planes. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools

Radiographic cephalometric studies of the hyoid bone usually use intracranial reference planes to measure the position of the hyoid bone. The hyoid triangle [Figure 2] was developed to avoid the false relational effects that changes in the orientation of the cranial planes would have on measurements of the position of the hyoid bone. Table 2: Cephalometric planes 1. Frankfort Horizontal plane From point orbitale to the superior most point on the external auditory meatus (porion). 2. Mandibular plane A line that is tangent to the inferior border of the mandible. 3. Mandibular incisor long axis A plane made by extending the long axis of the mandibular central incisor downward.

Planes for cephalometric analysis. The Anterior Cranial Base plane is between which two points? Sella and Nasion. The Frankfurt plane is between which two points? Porion and Orbitale. The Palatal plane is between which points? Anterior nasal spine and Posterior nasal spine. Where is the occlusal plane 146 Mendigeri, Ganeshkar and Ramdurg / IP Indian Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Research 2021;7(2):144-149 Fig. 3: Skeletal and dental cephalometric reference planes,angular and linear measurements used in the study. Reference planes: SN: the line joining S and N; Mandibular plane: line joining Go an Natural head position is a reproducible position of a head when it is in an upright position, with eyes looking straight at a mark. The concept was introduced into the field of orthodontics in the late 1950s by Moorrees and Kean. A horizontal line related to the natural head position has been recommended as the most reliable plane to study cephalometric analysis Landmarks, planes, and measurements used in the study are shown in and . Figure 1: (a) Facial divergence angle, cephalometric landmarks, and planes. (b) Measurements used in the stud Table 1. Definitions of cephalometric landmarks Landmarks B point (B) The deepest point between pogonion and the alveolus of the lower incisors on the midsagittal plane Pogonion (Pg) The most forward-projecting point on the anterior margin of symphysis menti on the midsagittal plane

Cephalometric planes. These planes are derived from at least 2 or 3 landmarks and are used for measurements, separation of anatomic divisions, and definition of anatomic structures of relating parts of the face to one another.The various cephalometric planes used are: 1 Contemporary cephalometric analysis in orthodontics is based on comparing elements of craniofacial morphology to selected reference planes. Ideally, a valid cephalometric reference plane/system should have the following features: good reliability (low method error), good intra-individual reproducibility, low inter-individua The main aims of cephalometric analysis in orthodontics is to enable the identification process of cephalometric points and planes that are typically used in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, and to trace the lateral skull radiograph. The analysis attempts to evaluate relationships; both horizontal and vertical of 5 major functional.

Cephalometric lines or planes used were: Sella-nasion plane (SN), Frankfurt horizontal plane (FH), the line connecting from Po to Or, AB as line connecting from A to B, NP as line connecting from N to Pog, CB as line connecting C to B, A-CB as line from point The aim of this study was to validate geometric accuracy and in vivo reproducibility of landmark-based cephalometric measurements using high-resolution 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla Cephalometric planes rely on locating anatomical landmarks whilst centroid planes join mathematically derived points. Centroid plane angles showed a higher correlation with age than cephalometric plane angles and were demonstrated to be a superior measure of change in shape of the cephalometric points and planes used in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. • Acetate tracing paper: a sheet 210mm x 160mm. • Viewing box • Protractor • 300mm ruler • Tracing template • Adhesive tape • Eraser • HB lead pencil • 4H lead pencil • Blue, red and green coloured pencils 1.1

McNamara Analysis. San Francisco native James A. McNamara Jr. is most widely known for his development of the McNamara Analysis, one of the most popular methods of cephalometric analyses. Circa 1983, McNamara's research focused mainly on clinical modification of the growth of face and jaw. He introduced this cephalometric analysis because. A plane 6 degrees below the Anterior Cranial Base (S-N) plane, through Sella and along the horizontal direction of the natural head position: Median (z-y) 3-D Cephalometric Reference Plane MP: A plane through Sella and Nasion and perpendicular to the Horizontal 3-D Cephalometric Reference Plane In this retrospective study, two treatment groups of adult (≥18 years old) hyperdivergent patients (mandibular plane angles of ≥38°) with anterior open bites were included: 17 fixed appliance patients and 36 clear aligner patients. Thirteen cephalometric measurements representing the vertical dimension were reported for each group Cephalometric landmarks are used as reference points for the construction of various cephalometric lines or planes and for subsequent numerical determination of cephalometric analysis measurements. FIG. 1D shows an exemplary result 108 of geometrical relationships among the identified landmark points of interest for a patient following. The conventional cephalometric planes were drawn. Subsequently, five angles were measured between true horizontal (HOR) and the se conventional cephalometric planes. Results: The above observations were subjected to statistical analysis to establish the variability of conventional intracranial referen ce planes and consistency of NHP

Cephalometric Planes - YouTub

Keywords: Ala-tragus line, camper's line, cephalometric analysis, complete denture, occlusal plane, yen angle How to cite this article: Kumar D R, Mehta SS, Deshpande S, Gupta A, Chadha M, Kumar C. A cephalometric analysis to establish a correlation of different ridge relations to three levels of camper's line in edentulous patients: An in vivo. The mean and standard deviation of all the midsagittal planes are illustrated in Table 3.When comparing the cephalometric values to the morphometric values by means of the AE, a large variation was seen in both symmetrical and asymmetrical groups (Table 4).As expected, the midsagittal planes constructed by connecting midline structures (1-3) resembled the morphometric plane more closely in. the lower incisor with the F.H. plane. The mean value is 65 0. 5. Angle between long axis of mandibular incisor and the A-Pog plane.This provides idea of mandibular incisor procumbency. Angle should be 22 ± 4 0. A-Pog line is referred to as the dental plane and is a useful reference line to measure the position o

Contemporary cephalometric analysis in orthodontics is based on comparing elements of craniofacial morphology to selected reference planes. Ideally, a valid cephalometric reference plane system should have the following features good reliability (low method error), good intraindividual reproducibility, low interindividual variability, and an. Cephalometric Analysis Jorge Fastlicht, DDS, MS Journal of Clinical Orthodontics Vol 33 2000 Number 6 Pages 353-360 or www.jco-online.com Tetragon: A Visual Cephalometric Analysis Jorge Fastlicht, DDS, MS Mx 1 Md 1 Occlusal Plane WIT Cephalometric comparison of treatment effects of Twin block and Bionator appliance with an untreated Class II sample Santosh Jetu Chavan, Wasundhara Ashok Bhad, Niyati Sunil Mehta Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Medical Square, Nagpur, Maharashtra, Indi Establishing the correct occlusal plane after loss of natural teeth, is an arduous task. So a study was done with the following objective: To establish the occlusal plane in the edentulous patient and also to relate the occlusal plane to the maxillo-mandibular space length and height with the aid of cephalometrics

The cephalometric measurements required for treatment planning are not necessarily the same as those used to evaluate the results of treatment. It is important to establish the measurements that are really necessary to provide the information required for treatment planning The human mandible is variable in shape, size and position and any deviation from normal can affect the facial appearance and dental occlusion. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the Sassouni cephalometric analysis could help predict two-dimensional mandibular shape in humans using cephalometric planes and landmarks. A retrospective computerised analysis of 100 lateral. The following cephalometric planes and angles were drawn for the purpose of the study: [Care was taken in selecting subjects for the study such that there were twenty subjects in each of the three groups with skeletal class I, class II, and class III type of malocclusion. (Confirmed by cephalometric analysis)] Cephalometric Planes

The position of the hyoid bone, which anchors much of the tongue musculature, is often abnormally low in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Cephalometric measurements, frequently used to measure SNA and SNB angles, can also provide information on the posterior airway space (PAS), the mandibular plane, and the hyoid bone. This information is useful in determining the. Description of cephalometric landmarks and planes used in the study. Table 2. Description of cephalometric measurements performed in the study. Table 3. Comparison of pre-treatment cephalometric measurements between the unfavorable and favorable groups. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation

Cephalometrics in orthodontics

1.1.1.4 Hard tissue lateral cephalometric reference planes; 1.1.1.5 Soft tissue lateral cephalometric reference planes; 1.1.1.6 Hard tissue posteroanterior cephalometric landmarks; 1.1.1.7 Hard tissue posteroanterior cephalometric reference planes; 1.1.1.8 Linear cephalometric measurements and normative value Angle (Angular) (religion, spiritualism, and occult) The term angle can be used in two different ways in astrology. In its primary, traditional meaning, angle refers to one of the four corners (figuratively speaking) of a chart—namely, the cusps of the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth houses The occlusal plane inclination is considered a critical factor in treatment planning for orthognathic surgery. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the inclination of the occlusal plane (Op°) relative to various skeletal and dental cephalometric parameters. Methods: A sample of 105 pretreatment cephalometric radiographs. Cephalometric radiography is a standardized radiographic technique employed to provide a better understanding of an individual's craniofacial structures in three planes of space: anteroposteriorly (AP), vertically, and transversely

In this study we aimed at quantifying the possible errors which may occur when assessing specific reference planes and linear derivants on cephalometric radiographs traced manually and digitally. Furthermore, we have compared the precision of the tracings according to both the two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D respectively) techniques and between clinicians Cephalometric analysis is one of the key tools in undertaking an accurate diagnosis in orthodontics, even though it presents a number of limitations given that it reduces to two dimensions a three-dimensional (3D) object by projecting all structures onto a single plate, thereby creating difficulties when it comes to understanding and undertaking an adequate analysis software. Different skeletal and dental parameters were used in analyzing the cephalometric analysis of the patients. The change in the condylar axis angle was evaluated on 3 planes: axial, coronal, and sagittal. The anteroposterior position of the condyle in relation to the glenoid fossa was evaluated in the sagittal plane. ∠SNB, ∠ANB, ∠Left Y-axis, ∠Right Y-axis were statistically.

All lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken using the same digital cephalometric machine (Orthopantomograph OP100; Instrumentarium Imaging, Tuusula, Finland) by the same operator with the same cephalometric setup, with subjects positioned in the natural head position, with the Frankfort Horizontal Plane (FHP) of the patient parallel to the. The tracing was performed in a dark room using a radiograph light source. Descriptions of the cephalometric reference points and planes follow. 3,23-26 The angular and linear measurements, which were used in a previous study by Begg and Harkeness, 3 are shown in Table 1 and Figures 1 and 2 In the antero-posterior plane, SN lengths were measured when angle SNMx was at 5 and 11 degrees for Figures 1 and 3, respectively.N was moved posteriorly until an ANB value of a Class II skeletal base was measured (N 2) and anteriorly until an ANB value of a Class III skeletal base was obtained (N 3).The skeletal base of maxilla and mandible however had been left unchanged to one another and. plane (Fig. l), using anatomic porion (the superior as- pect of the external auditory meatus) and orbitale (the lower border of the orbit of the eye) as reference points. Method of cephulometric evaluation 451 Table I. Cephalometric values of 111 untreated adults with well-balanced faces and goo

The use of Camper's plane running from lower border of Ala to superior border of Tragus gives very near the cant of . occlusal plane as seen in the natural dentition with three facial types. Key Words: Camper's plane, Cephalogram, Dentulous, Edentulous, Frankfurt horizontal plane, Plane of occlusio is aligned with the patients mid-sagittal plane (dashed line in picture). Adjust the position by moving patients' head, if needed. POINT NR. 3: Gently move the patients head, so that the hor-izontal Frankfurt navigation beam is aligned with the ear canal. When patient starts to stand on his toes, adjust the height of the unit and try again

Five cephalometric measurements used in the Vert indexCephalometrics ( landmarks,Lines and Planes )

Cephalometrics analysis - SlideShar

The process of evaluating dental and skeletal relationships usually in lateral view by the use of measurements taken directly from the head or from cephalometric radiographs and tracings. Tracings can be made on which specific landmark lines and points are marked. The commonly used cephalometric points and lines include the Frankfort plane, maxillary plane, mandibular plane, and the upper. 1. Cephalometric Points Definitions and Identification 2. Cephalometrics Planes Definitions and importance of Diagnosis. 3. Computer Aided Orthodontic Diagnosis and Analysis, based on Gender, Race and Age (Visual Norm) 4. Ricketts 12 Factors Summary Analysis Identification of Angles; importance o plane of the film in the horizontal and vertical dimensions from a source 91 to 102 cm (36 to 40 inches) away. The source should be coincident with the midsagittal plane of the head at the level of the bridge of the nose. For cephalometric applications the distance should be 152.4 cm (60 inches) between the x-ray source and the midcoronal plane. This week and next I will be covering two extraoral radiographs made in dentistry. The first one is a lateral cephalometric skull radiograph which is commonly made for orthodontic purposes. Here is how to position a patient for this radiograph. 1. Place the midsagittal plane of the patient parallel with the image receptor The following cephalometric points were used (Figure 1a): Nasion(N) - the most anterior point of the nasofron-tal suture in the midsagittal plane, Sella (S) the middle of the sella turcica contour in the medial plane, Subspi-nale (A) - the deepest point of the shadow contour of the pre-maxilla in the medial plane, Supramentale (B) - th

Diagram showing the reference planes and cephalometric

Aim: Determination of the plane of occlusion in completely edentulous patients with the help of the ala-tragus line (Camper's plane) may be questioned. An attempt to devise an alternative method to determine the orientation of the plane of occlusion was made. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric analysis was used to identify whether a correlation exists between the plane of occlusion of. Once the constructed true horizontal reference plane was analysed, a study group consisting of 20 patients was created from the cephalograms where the FH plane showed a deviation of greater than ± 2° from the true horizontal (lower edge of the film) and the 5 cephalometric parameters mentioned above, were compared between the Frankfort. Cephalometric analysis of the airway does permit precise measurements in a sagittal plane and has the advantages of convenience, low cost and minimal exposure to radiation. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to mandibular planes, mandibular posterior rotation when compared to the Caucasian. In conclusion, these ethnic differences should be considered during treatment, especially in prosthodontics and orthodontics where arch dimension can be modified appreciably. Key words: Lateral cephalometric radiograph, facial profile. Steiner analysis, Caucasian. Third, cephalometric tracing with 42 landmark points detection, performed on real and synthesized images by two expert orthodontists, showed consistency with mean difference of 2.08 ± 1.02 mm

Frankfort Horizontal Plane - Magnum Worksho

CEPHALOMETRIC FLOATING NORMS FOR THE BETA ANGLE, MAXILLARY-MANDIBULAR PLANE ANGLE BISECTOR-WITS AND YEN-LINEAR AMONG THE CHENNAI POPULATION : A RETROSPECTIVE - IN-VITRO STUDY Dr. Vineeth Kumar1, Dr. Dhivya Dilipkumar MDS2, Dr. Deepak. C MDS , PhD3, Dr. Akshay Tandon MDS4, 1 3 PG Student, 2Associate Professor, Professor and Head, 4 Senior lecture A cephalometric superimposition is an analysis of lateral cephalograms of the same patient taken at different times. It isused to evaluate a patient's growth found that DeCosters cribriform plane was only moderately successful as far as reproducibility was concerned. Its applicability did not favor the usage of this line. (11).

A Beginners Guide to Lateral Cephalometric Radiograph

Cephalometric planes : Frankfort Horizontal Plane (FH) This plane cross Porion and Orbitale points: Palatal Plane (PP) This plane cross ANS and PNS points: Mandibular Plane (MP) Formed by a line that connects the chin to the lower and posterior border of the mandibular body 4 4 Kim YH. Overbite depth indicator with particular reference to. Cephalometric analysis, which is based on various angular and linear measurements is an essential part of diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics. Analysis of jaws in sagittal plane is a key step which was first introduced by Wylie ( Wylie, 1947) in 1947. Since then many methods of assessing the jaw in AP plane have been formulated Thus, considering the fact that the lower face height parameter from the Ricketts lateral cephalometric analysis is not obtained from any teeth planes or position, which can vary due to loss of elements or wearing of occlusal surfaces, it can be used as an individual pattern for each patient coadjutant in the establishment of OVD

Cephalometric reference planes--sella nasion vs Frankfort

Each cephalometric landmark is explained in detail including its abbreviation, definition by various researchers, origin and radiographic anatomy of the landmarks. There are 20 chapters divided into 11 sections. Chapter two lists the different ways of classifying cephalometric landmarks given in the literature Cephalometric Reference Planes 61 Figure 4. Polar Grid 63 Figure 5. Oral Gnomon 65 Figure 6. Facial Gnomon 66 Figure 7. Ba-N-A Point Angle 67 Figure 8. Ba-N-ANS Angle 68 Figure 9. Polar Composite: Total Males 79 Figure 10. Polar Composite: Mesofacial Males 81 Figure 11. Polar Composite: Total Females 83. The location of XI is keyed geometrically to the FH and PTV planes in four steps: (1) Planes are constructed perpendicular to the FH and PTV planes. (2) These constructed planes are tangent to points (R1, R2, R3, and R4) on the borders of the ramus. (3) The constructed planes form a rectangle enclosing the ramus

Cephalometric analysis for functional occlusion : APOS

1758. A cephalometric landmark used to measure the mandibular plane angle is GONION (GoGn). 1759. The most posterior, inferior point on the gonial angle at the junction of the body of the mandible and ramus is GONION. 1760. The line joining PORION and ORBITALE is the FRANKFORT PLANE. 1761 Cephalometric data were compared to an untreated control group of 15 female and 15 male Class II Division 1 subjects. The data was evaluated using independent samples t-tests and ANOVA statistical tests to determine statistical differences between groups (p < 0.05). The FMAB was determined to be a highly reproducible reference plane which.

Cephalometric Analysis

Cephalometric Analysis - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

SN plane is constructed by joining the mid-point of sella tursica (S) with nasion (N). Commonly used cepahlometric analyses utilize these two planes.3 Though all cephalometric planes show some variations, SN plane followed by FH plane have been found to be relatively stable.4 The angle between these two planes is considered to be 7°.5- A series of construction planes were realized by tracing cephalometric points and made orthogonal and/or parallel among them and with the three planes of reference. The analysis involves a series of linear measurements obtained by calculating the distance between the cephalometric points and constructed planes on the same plane as the thre

Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery | Pocket DentistrySuccessful CAD/CAM mouth rehabilitation followingCephalometricsFrankfort Horizontal Plane – Magnum Workshop

plane, it resulted in the standard deviation being greater than the mean value. Therefore for the first 2 parameters a Mann-Whitney U test was done. In the study group, where FH plane deviated from the true horizontal, when the cephalometric parameters between the FH plane and the true horizontal throug paring tracings of the frontal cephalometric radiographs. Using the midsagittal reference line (MSR) from crista galli (Cg) to anterior nasal spine (ANS), the angles formed by the intersection of the following planes with MSR were measured; planes connecting the zygomaticofrontal suture (Z plane), the centers of th Ceph Tracings $39.00 US per ceph- this includes multiple analyses. Patient records organized $26.00 US. Superimpositions $25.00 US in addition to the cost of tracing the PreTx and PostTx cephs. Cephanalysis.com Order Form (pdf) Download CCD: Comprehensive Cephalometric Diagnosis. For both general dentists and specialists, this is best and most effective Cephalometric course available online. Take advantage of Dr Chris Baker's 30+ years of experience teaching orthodontics. Be transformed! 20 Hours ADA CERP A CR-MIP discrepancy of less than 1 mm in the vertical or horizontal plane is epidemiologically normal and apparently not a risk factor for TMD. 11 However, a more than 2 mm slide from CR to MIP in the vertical or horizontal plane is a critical factor that needs to be considered when assessing relative risk factors for TMD. 6 The present study. The purpose of this study was to determine the cephalometric norms of typical Arab young adults with class I molar relationship and well-balanced face and to compare these norms with those derived from matched Chinese subjects. Lateral cephalometric of 71 Arab adults (37 males age 20-26) (female age 20-26) were compared with 76 Chinese young adults (42 male age 20-26) (34 female 20-26.